Peer Reviewed Publications

  1. S. and S. Dhakal (2023). Stakeholders’ perceptions of sustainable energy transition pathways in the city of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Accepted for publication to Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier.
  2. Champeecharoensuk, A., Dhakal and N. Chollacoop (2023). Climate Change Mitigation in Thailand’s Domestic Aviation: mitigation options analysis towards 2050, Energies, 16(20), 7199, MDPI.
  3. Aryal, S., Dhakal and S. KC. (2023). Integrated Analysis of End-use Electrification and Cross-border Electricity Trade Policies for Hydropower Enabled Energy Transformation in Nepal, Renewable Energy Vol 219, Part 1 (Dec 2023) 119467, Elsevier.
  4. Stringer, L.C, Dhakal, M. Milkoreit, C. Mendoza, A. Mukherji, I. Shishlov, S. Fisher, N. P. Simpson, C. F. Schleussner (2023). Ratcheting up effectiveness to improve the Global Stocktake process. One Earth 6 (9), 1069-1073. Cell Press.
  5. Gamonwet, P. and Dhakal (2023). The Assessment of the value of electricity saving and economic benefit to residential solar rooftop PV customers: The Case of Thailand. Energy Strategy Reviews 50 (2023) 101203 Elsevier.
  6. Kamandika, F. A, and Dhakal (2023). Impact of Carbon Price on Indonesia’s Power Sector Up To 2050. Carbon Neutrality, Springer.
  7. Battulga, S. and Dhakal (2023). Energy Demand Modeling for the Transition of a Coal-Dependent City to a Low-Carbon City: The Case of Ulaanbaatar City. Energies 2023, 16, 6291. MDPI.
  8. Dhakal, S. and M. Pradhan (2023). Identification and prioritization of barriers to access international climate finance for Nepal. Asia-Pacific Sustainable Development Journal, 30 (1) 121-146, May 2023. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. Bangkok.
  9. Chen, S., K Fang, Dhakal, A. Kharrazi, KK, Tong and A. Ramaswami (2023). Advancing urban infrastructure research for a carbon-neutral and sustainable future. Resources, Conservation & Recycling, 197:107049, Elsevier.
  10. Thapa, P., B Mainali, Dhakal (2023). Focus on Climate Action: What level of synergy and trade-off is there between SDG 13; Climate action and other SDGs in Nepal? Energies, 16(1) 566, MDPI.
  11. Babiker, M., Bazaz, A., Bertoldi, P., Creutzig, F., De Coninck, H., De Kleijne, K., Dhakal, S., Haldar, S., Jiang, K., Kılkış, Ş., Klaus, I., Krishnaswamy, J., Lwasa, S., Niamir, L., Pathak, M., Pereira, J. P., Revi, A., Roy, J., Seto, K.C., Singh, C., Some, S., Steg, L., Ürge-Vorsatz, D. (2022). What the latest science on climate change mitigation means for cities and urban areas. Indian Institute for Human Settlements.
  12. Sharmin F., and S. Dhakal (2022). A composite energy resilience performance indicator for Bangladesh. Submitted to Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy. Accepted for publication
  13. Thola, J., P. A. Salam, S. Dhakal, and E. Winijkul (2022). Sustainable alternative options for open burning of corn residues: case of Mae Chaem District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 31(6) 1-11.
  14. Cai , H. Liu , H. Pan, M. Zhao, T. Zheng, J. Nie , M. Du, S. Dhakal. High-resolution accounting of urban emissions in China. Applied Energy, 325 (2022) 119896, Elsevier.
  15. Champeecharoensuk, T., P. Abdul Salam, S. Dhakal, N. Chollacoop (2022). Key Driver Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Thailand’s Public Bus Transport with Comparative Study on Metropolitan Bangkok Hotspots. Accepted for publication to Energy for Sustainable Development, 70 (October 2022), 456-465, Elsevier.
  16. Khan M. R. and S. Dhakal (2022). Do experts and stakeholders perceive energy security issues differently in Bangladesh? Energy Strategy Review, 42 (July 2022), 100887
  17. Aryal, S., and Dhakal (2022). Medium-Term Assessment of Cross Border Trading Potential of Nepal’s Renewable Energy Using TIMES Energy System Optimization Platform, Energy Policy, 168 (Sept 022), 113098.
  18. Dhakal, S., J. C. Minx, F.L. Toth, A. Abdel-Aziz, M.J. Figueroa Meza, K. Hubacek, I.G.C. Jonckheere, Y-G. Kim, G.F. Nemet, S. Pachauri, X. Tan, T. Wiedmann, 2022: Emissions Trends and Drivers. In IPCC, 2022: Climate Change 2022: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [P.R. Shukla, J. Skea, R. Slade, A. Al Khourdajie, R. van Diemen, D. McCollum, M. Pathak, S. Some, P. Vyas, R. Fradera, M. Belkacemi, A. Hasija, G. Lisboa, S. Luz, J. Malley, (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press. In press.
  19. Pradhan, P., D. R. Subedi, D. Khatiwada, K. K. Joshi, S. Kafle, R. Pandit Chhetri, S. Dhakal, A. P. Gautam, P. P. Khatiwada, J. Mainaly, S. Onta, V. P. Pandey, K. Parajuly, S. Pokharel, P. Satyal, D. R. Singh, R. Talchabhadel, R.  Thapa, B. R. Thapa, K. Adhikari, S. Adhikari, R. C. Bastakoti, P. Bhandari, S.  Bharati, Y. R. Bhusal, M. B. BK, R. Bogati, S. Kafle, M. Khadka, N. R.  Khatiwada, A. C. Lal, D. Neupane, K. R. Neupane, R. Ojha, N. P. Regmi, M.  Rupakheti, A. Sapkota, R. Sapkota, M. Sharma, G. Shrestha, I. Shrestha, K. B.  Shrestha, S. Tandukar, S. Upadhyaya, J. P. Kropp, D. R. Bhuju (2021). The COVID-19 Pandemic not only Puts Challenges but also Opens Opportunities for Sustainable Transformation, Accepted for publication to Earth’s Future 9 (7) e2021EF001996
  20. Chen, S., K. Fang, S. Dhakal, A. Kharrazi, K. Tong, A. Ramaswami (2021). Reshaping urban infrastructure for a carbon-neutral and sustainable future. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 2021, 174, 105765 (IF 10.204).
  21. Seeley, C.C. and Dhakal (2021). Energy Efficiency Retrofits in Commercial Buildings: An Environmental, Financial, and Technical Analysis of Case Studies in Thailand, Thailand. Energies 14, 2571.
  22. Khamchiangta, D. and Dhakal (2021). Future urban expansion and local climate zone changes in relation to land surface temperature: case of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, Thailand, Urban Climate 37, 100835.
  23. Seeley, C.C. and Dhakal (2021). Energy and CO2 Emission Reduction Potential from Investment in Energy Efficiency Building Retrofits in Bangkok, Thailand. Accepted for publication to International Journal of Sustainable Energy.
  24. Ramaswami, A., K. Tong, J. G. Canadell, R. B. Jackson, E. Stokes, Dhakal; M. Finch; P. Jittrapirom, N. Singh, Y. Yamagata, E. Yewdall and L. Yona (2021). Carbon analytics for net-zero emissions sustainable cities, Nature Sustainability,
  25. Lamb, W. F., T. Wiedmann, J. Pongratz, R. Andrew, M. Crippa, J.G.J. Olivier, D. Wiedenhofer, G. Mattioli, A. Al Khourdajie, J. House, S. Pachauri, M. Figueroa, Y. Saheb, R., K. Hubacek, L. Sun, S. K. Ribeiro, S. Khennas, S. Rue Can, L. Chapungu, S. J. Davis, I. Bashmakov, H. Dai, Dhakal, X. Tan, Y. Geng, B. Gu, J. Minx (2020). A review of trends and drivers of greenhouse gas emissions by sector from 1990 to 2018. Accepted for publication to Environmental Research Letters (12 March 2021).
  26. Khamchiangta, D. and S. Dhakal (2020). Time series analysis of land use and land cover changes related to urban heat island intensity: Case of Bangkok Metropolitan Area in Thailand. Journal of Urban Management, 9(4), pp. 383-395. DOI:
  27. Chanthawong, A., S. Dhakal, J. Kuwornu and K. Farooq (2020). Impact of subsidy and taxation related to biofuels policies on the economy of Thailand: A dynamic CGE modelling approach, Waste and Biomass Valorization, 11(3), pp. 909-929.
  28. Kaneko, S., K. Murakami, S. Dhakal, and A. Sharifi (2020). Changes in per capita CO2 emissions of six large Japanese cities between 1980 and 2000: an analysis using “The Four System Boundaries” approach, Sustainable Cities and Society, 52. 101784.
  29. Haque, H.M.E., Dhakal and S. M.G. Mostofa (2020). An assessment of Opportunities and Challenges for Cross-border Electricity Trade for Bangladesh using SWOT-AHP Approach. Energy Policy, 111118.
  30. B. Cai; Z. Ma; Z. Wang; S. Dhakal; L. Cao (2019). Benchmarking Carbon Efficiency in Chinese Cities: A comparative study based on high-resolution gridded data, Applied Energy, 242 (2019) 994–1009.
  31. Shrestha S. and S. Dhakal (2019). An Assessment of Potential Synergies and Trade- offs between Climate Mitigation and Adaptation Policies of Nepal, Journal of Environmental Management, 235 (2019) 535–545.
  32. Meangbua, O., S. Dhakal and J. Kuwornu (2019). Factors influencing energy requirements and CO2 emissions of households in Thailand: A panel data analysis, Energy Policy, 129 (2019) 521-531.
  33. Nangini, C., A. Peregon, P. Ciais, U. Weddige, F. Vogel, J. Wang, FM. Bréon, S. Bachra, Y. Wang, K. Gurney, Y. Yamagata, K. Appleby, S. Telahoun, J. G. Canadell, A. Grübler, S. Dhakal, F. Creutzig. A global dataset of CO2 emissions and ancillary data related to emissions for 343 cities, Nature Scientific Data 6, Article number: 180280 (2019).
  34. Creutzig, F., S. Lohrey, X. Bai, A. Baklanov, R. Dawson, S. Dhakal, W. F. Lamb, T. McPhearson, J. Minx, E. Munoz, and B. Walsh (2019). Upscaling urban data science for global climate solutions, Global Sustainability, 2, E2.
  35. Grafakos, S., K. Trigg, M. Landauer, L. Chelleri, S. Dhakal (2019). Analytical framework to evaluate the level of integration of climate adaptation and mitigation in cities, Climatic Change. Published online 25 March 2019.
  36. Kaneko, S., K. Murakami, S. Dhakal, and A. Sharifi (2018). Changes in per capita CO2 emissions of six large Japanese cities between 1980 and 2000: an analysis using “The Four System Boundaries” approach, Sustainable Cities and Society. Accepted for publication.
  37. S. Dhakal, S., P. Karki and S. Shrestha (2019). Cross-border Electricity Trade for Nepal: A SWOT-AHP analysis of barriers and opportunities based on stakeholders’ perception, International Journal of Water Resources Development, Taylor and Francis.
  38. Khamchiangta, D. and S. Dhakal (2019). Physical and Non-Physical Factors Driving Urban Heat Island: The case of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, Thailand. Journal of Environmental Management 248, 109285.
  39. Chanthawong, A., S. Dhakal, J. Kuwornu and K. Farooq (2018). Impact of subsidy and taxation related to biofuels policies on the economy of Thailand: A dynamic CGE modelling approach, Waste and Biomass Valorization, (published online on 2 August 2018).
  40. Bai, X., R. J. Dawson, D. Ürge-Vorsatz, G. C. Delgado, A. S. Barau, S.  Dhakal, D. Dodman, L. Leonardsen, V. Masson-Delmotte, D. Roberts, S. Schultz (2018). Six research priorities for cities and climate change, Nature, 555: 23-25 (27 February 2018). doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02409-z
  41. Solecki, W, C. Rosenzweig, S. Dhakal, D. Roberts, A. Barau, S. Schulz, and D. Ürge-Vorsatz (2018). City Transformations in a 1.5ᵒC Warmer World, Nature Climate Change 8(3) 177-181.
  42. Ürge-Vorsatz, D., C. Rosenzweig, R. Dawson, R. Sanchez-Rodriguez, X. Bai, A. Barau, K. Seto, and S. Dhakal (2018). Locking-in positive climate responses in cities. Nature Climate Change 8(3) 174-177.
  43. Cai, B., W. Li, S. Dhakal, and J. Wang (2018). Source data supported high resolution carbon emissions inventory for urban areas of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region: Spatial patterns, decomposition and policy implications. Journal of Environmental Management Vol. 206:786-799.
  44. Qianli Chen, Bofeng Cai, Shobhakar Dhakal, Sha Pei, Chunlan Liu and Fangfang Hu (2017). CO2 emission data for Chinese cities. Resources, Conservation & Recycling 126, 198-208.
  45. Gamonwet, S. Dhakal, and K. Thammasiri (2017). The Impact of Renewable Energy Pricing Incentive Policies in Thailand. GMSARN International Journal 11 (2017) 51 – 60.
  46. Kunvitaya A. and S. Dhakal (2017). Household energy requirement in two medium size cities with different population densities in Thailand. Accepted for publication to Environment and Urbanization 29 (1) 267-282.
  47. Felix Creutzig, Peter Agoston, Jan C. Minx, Josep G. Canadell, Robbie Andrew, Corinne Le Quéré, Glen P. Peters, Ayyoob Sharifi, Yoshiki Yamagata, Shobhakar Dhakal (2016). Urban infrastructure choices structure climate solutions. Nature Climate Change 6, 1054-56. doi:10.1038/nclimate3178.
  48. Chanthawong A., S. Dhakal, J. Jongwanich (2016). Supply and demand of biofuels in the fuel market of Thailand: 2SLS and 3SLS approaches. Energy 114: 431–443.
  49. Chanthawong A. and S. Dhakal (2016). Stakeholders’ perceptions on challenges and opportunities for biodiesel and bioethanol policy development in Thailand, Energy Policy 91:189–206.
  50. Chanthawong A., S. Dhakal (2016). Liquid biofuels development in Southeast Asian countries: An analysis of market, policies and challenges. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 7(1): 157–173.
  51. Kawin Ruamsuke, Shobhakar Dhakal, Charles O.P. Marpaung (2015). Energy and Economic Impacts of the Global Climate Change Policy on Southeast Asian Countries: A General Equilibrium Analysis. Energy, 81:446–461, Elsevier.
  52. Sangam Shrestha, Kshitij Parajuli, Mukand S. Babel, Shobhakar Dhakal and Victor Shinde (2015). Water–energy–carbon nexus: a case study of Bangkok. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, In Press, Uncorrected Proof available at IWA Publishing.
  53. Sangam Shrestha, Saroj Adhikari, Mukand S. Babel, Sylvain R. Perret, Shobhakar Dhakal (2015). Evaluation of Groundwater-based Irrigation Systems using a Water Energy Food Nexus Approach: A Case Study from Southeast Nepal. Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research, In Press, Taylor and Francis.
  54. Raza Ullah, Damein Jourdain, Ganesh P. Shivakoti and Shobhakar Dhakal (2015). Managing Catastrophic Risks in Agriculture: Simultaneous Adoption of Diversification and Precautionary Savings, International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 12: 268–277, Elsevier.
  55. Seto K. C., S. Dhakal, A. Bigio, H. Blanco, G. C. Delgado, D. Dewar, L. Huang, A. Inaba, A. Kansal, S. Lwasa, J. E. McMahon, D. B. Müller, J. Murakami, H. Nagendra, and A. Ramaswami, 2014: Human Settlements, Infrastructure and Spatial Planning. In: Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Edenhofer, O., R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, A. Adler, I. Baum, S. Brunner, P. Eickemeier, B. Kriemann, J. Savolainen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow, T. Zwickel and J.C. Minx (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
  56. Christopher Kennedy, Lawrence Baker, Shobhakar Dhakal, and Anu Ramaswami (2012). Sustainable Urban Systems: An Integrated Approach. Journal of Industrial Ecology 16(6):775-779.
  57. Venkatesh, Govindarajan; Dhakal, Shobhakar (2012). An International Look at the Water-Energy Nexus, Journal of American Water Works Association, 104 (5) 93-96.
  58. Yasuyo Makido, Shobhakar Dhakal and Yoshiki Yamagata (2012). Relationship between urban forms and CO2 emissions: Evidenced from 50 Japanese cities. Urban Climate 2: 55–67.
  59. S. P. Seitzinger, U. Svedin, C. Crumley, W. Steffen, S. A. Abdullah, C. Alfsen, W. J. Broadgate, F. H.B.  Biermann, N. Bondre, J. A. Dearing, L. Deutsch, S. Dhakal, T. Elmqvist,  N. Farahbakhshazad, O. Gaffney, H. Haberl,  S. Lavorel,  C. Mbow, A. J. McMichael, J. Morais, P. Olsson, P. Pinho, K. C. Seto, P. Sinclair, M. Stafford-Smith, L. Sugar (2012). Planetary stewardship in an urbanising world: beyond city limits.  Ambio 41:787-794.
  60. Phetkeo Poumanyvong, Shinji Kaneko, Shobhakar Dhakal (2012). Impacts of urbanization on national transport and road energy use: Evidence from low-, middle- and high-income countries. Energy Policy 46:268-277, Elsevier.
  61. Ada Ignaciuk, Martin Rice, Janos Bogardi, Pep Canadell, Shobhakar Dhakal, John Ingram, Rik Leemans and Mark Rosenberg (2012). Responding to Complex Societal Challenges: A Decade of Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) Interdisciplinary Research. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 4(1)147-158.
  62. Grubler, A., X. Bai, T. Buettner, S. Dhakal, D. J. Fisk, T. Ichinose, J. E. Keirstead, G. Sammer, D. Satterthwaite, N. B. Schulz, N. Shah, J. Steinberger and H. Weisz, 2012: Chapter 18 – Urban Energy Systems. In Global Energy Assessment – Toward a Sustainable Future, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria, pp. 1307-1400.
  63. Anu Ramaswami and Shobhakar Dhakal (2011). Low carbon policies in the USA and China: Why cities play a critical role. Carbon Management 2(4) 359-352.
  64. Houghton RA and Shobhakar Dhakal (2010). Welcome to Carbon Management. Carbon Management 1(1):1-3, Future Science Publishers.
  65. Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Shobhakar Dhakal, Han Dolman, Pierre Friedlingstein, Kevin R. Gurney, Alex Held, Robert B. Jackson, Corinne Le Quéré, Elizabeth L. Malone, Dennis S. Ojima, Anand Patwardhan, Glen P. Peters, Michael R. Raupach (2010). Interactions of the carbon cycle, human activity, and the climate system: A research portfolio. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2(4)301-311, Elsevier.
  66. Corinne Le Quéré, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Shobhakar Dhakal, Anand Patwardhan, Michael R. Raupach, and Oran R. Young (2010). An International Carbon Office to assist policy-based science. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2(4)297-300, Elsevier.
  67. Dhakal, Shobhakar (2010). GHG emissions from urbanization and opportunities for urban carbon mitigation. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2(4): 277–283, Elsevier.
  68. Shobhakar Dhakal and Anil Raut. 2010. Potential and bottlenecks of the carbon market: Case of developing country, Nepal. Energy Policy, 38 (2010) 3781–3789.
  69. Dhakal, Shobhakar and Shrestha Ram M. (2010). Bridging the research gaps for carbon emissions and their management in cities. Energy Policy, 38(2010)4753-4755.
  70. Shobhakar Dhakal. 2009. Urban energy use and carbon emissions from cities in China and policy implications. Energy Policy, 37 (2009) 4208–4219.
  71. Li Li,  Changhong Chen,  Shichen Xie, Cheng Huang, Zhen Cheng, Hongli Wang, Haiying Huang, Jun Lu, Shobhakar Dhakal. 2009. Energy demand and carbon emissions under different development scenarios for Shanghai, China. Energy Policy 38(9)4797-4807.
  72. Kennedy, Christopher, Anu Ramaswami, Sebastian Carney and Shobhakar Dhakal. 2009. Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines for Global Cities and Metropolitan Regions. World Bank Commissioned paper for the Urban Research Symposium on Cities and Climate Change, Marseille, 28-30 June 2009.
  73. Nigel Jollands, Paul Dowling, Shobhakar Dhakal, Leticia Guimaraes, Stephen Hammer, Stephen Henihan, Lily Parshall, Matthian Ruth, Niels Shulz, Wayne Wescott. 2008. Chapter 8- Energy Use in Cities, World Energy Outlook 2008, Paris: International Energy Agency.
  74. Shobhakar Dhakal. 2008. Creating an Urban Movement for Sustainable Living. Global Asia- A Journal of East Asia Foundation 3(3):16-20.
  75. Shobhakar Dhakal and Michele Betsill. 2007. Challenges of Urban and Regional Carbon Management and the scientific response. Local Environment 12 (5): 549 – 555. DOI:10.1080/13549830701656929
  76. Sudhakar Yedla and Shobhakar Dhakal. 2007. Transport and Environment in Developing countries, Journal of Environment and Pollution 30 (1) 1-7.
  77. Shobhakar Dhakal and Lee Schipper. 2005. Transport and Environment in Asian Cities: Reshaping the issues and opportunities into a holistic framework. International Review for Environmental Strategies 5 (2): 399-424.
  78. Shobhakar Dhakal. 2005. Strengthening urban environmental management in Asia, Sustainable Asia 2005 and Beyond – In pursuit of innovative policies, Hayama: Institute for Global Environmental Strategies.
  79. Shobhakar Dhakal. 2005. Energy consumption and GHG emission in Asian mega-cities. Urban Environmental Management Challenges in Asia, Hayama: Institute for Global Environmental Strategies.
  80. Shobhakar Dhakal, Keisuke Hanaki and Ai Hiramatsu. 2004. Heat discharges by an office building in Tokyo using DOE-2. Energy Conversion and Management 45 (7/8): 1107-1118.
  81. Shobhakar Dhakal, Keisuke Hanaki and Ai Hiramatsu. 2003. Estimation of Heat Discharges by Residential Buildings in Tokyo. Energy Conversion and Management 44 (9): 1487 – 1499.
  82. Shobhakar Dhakal. 2003. Implications of transportation policies on energy and environment in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Energy Policy 31(14): 1493-1507.
  83. Shobhakar Dhakal and Hidefumi Imura. 2003. Policy based indicator Systems: emerging debates and lessons, Local Environment 8(1):113-119.
  84. Dhakal, S.; S. Kaneko and H. Imura (2003). CO2 emissions from energy use in east-Asian mega-cities: driving factors and their contributions, Environmental Systems Research, Volume 31, pp. 209-216. Japan Society of Civil Engineers.
  85. Shobhakar Dhakal and Keisuke Hanaki. 2002. Improvement of Urban Warming by Managing Heat Discharges and Surface Modifications in Tokyo. Energy and Buildings 34(1): 13-23
  86. Dhakal, S.; S. Kaneko and H. Imura (2002). An analysis on driving factors for CO2 emissions from energy use in Tokyo and Seoul by Factor Decomposition Method. Environmental Systems Research, Volume 30, pp 295-303. Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE).